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The intelligence of the Japanese.
Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 1977, 30, 69-72.
Shows that the IQ in Japan is higher than in the US and Britain

Lynn, R. The intelligence of the Chinese and Malays in Singapore.
Mankind Quarterly, 1977b,18,125-128.
Shows that the IQ of the Chinese in Singapore is higher than in the US and Britain

The social ecology of intelligence in the British Isles.
British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1979, 18,1-12.
Shows that the British Isles the IQ is highest in London and lowest in Ireland

The social ecology of intelligence in the France.
British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1980, 19,325-331.
Shows that France the IQ is highest in Paris and lowest in Corsica

IQ in Japan and the United States shows a growing disparity.
Nature, 1982 297, 222-223.

Shows that the IQ in Japan has increased since the 1930s and is higher than in the US.
A pre-Flynn report of the Flynn effect.

(With Hampson, S.L.). The rise of national intelligence: evidence from Britain, Japan and the USA.
Personality and Individual Differences, 1986, 7, 23-32.

(With Hampson, S.L. & Mullineaux, J.C.).
A long term increase in the fluid intelligence of English children.
Nature, 1987, 328, 797.

The role of nutrition in secular increases of intelligence.
Personality and Individual Differences, 1990, 11, 273285.
Proposed that improvements in nutrition are the principal cause of the secular increases of intelligence

(With Hattori, K). The heritability of intelligence in Japan.
Behavior Genetics, 1990, 20, 545-546.

(With Holmshaw, M. ) Black-white differences in reaction times and intelligence.
Social Behavior and Personality, 1990, 18,299-308.

Lynn, R. and Mulhern, G. (1991) A comparison of sex differences on the Scottish and American standardisation samples of the WISC-R.
Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 11791182.

(With Frydman, M.). The general intelligence and spatial abilities of gifted young chess players.
British Journal of Psychology, 1992, 83, 233-235.

Sex differences in competitiveness and the valuation of money in twenty countries.
Journal of Social Psychology, 1993, 133, 507-512.
Shows that women are less competitive and value money less than men

Sex differences in intelligence and brain size: a paradox resolved. Personality and Individual Differences, 1994,17, 257-271.
Argues that there is no sex differences in intelligence up to the age of 16 but from this age boys develop higher average IQ and have an advantage of approximately 5 IQ points among adults, consistent with their larger brain size.

Some reinterpretations of the Minnesota trans-racial adoption study.
Intelligence, 1994, 19, 21-28.

Shows that black children adopted by white parents do not gain in IQ at the age of 18

(With Hattori, K.) Male-female differences on the Japanese WAIS-R.
Personality and Individual Differences, 1997, 23,531-533.
Shows that in Japan men obtain a higher average score than women by 3.3 IQ points, providing further evidence that men have slightly higher IQs than women, consistent with their larger brain size.

(With Mylotte, A., Ford, F. & McHugh, M.) The heritability of intelligence and social maturity in four to six year olds: a study of Irish twins.
Irish Journal of Psychology, 1997, 18,439-443.

Estimates a heritability of 40% in young children in this first ever study of the heritability of intelligence in Ireland.

Sex differences in intelligence: a rejoinder to Mackintosh.
Journal of Biosocial Science,1998, 30, 529-532

Replies to criticisms of the theory that men have higher average intelligence than women and presents new evidence in support of the theory.
Sex differences in intelligence: some comments on Mackintosh and Flynn. Journal of Biosocial Science,1998,30,555-559

Presents further data and arguments that men have higher IQs than women.
Sex differences on the Scottish standardisation sample of the WAIS-R. Personality and Individual Differences,1998, 24,289-290.

Presents evidence that in Scotland the average IQ of men is approximately 5 IQ points higher than that of women.

The decline of genotypic intelligence. In U.Neisser (Ed)
The Rising Curve: Long Term gains in IQ and Related Matters.
Washington,DC: American Psychological Association,1998.
Summarises and extends the thesis that the genetic quality of modern populations is deteriorating as a result of the low fertility of the more intelligent.

In support of the nutrition theory. In U. Neisser (Ed)
The Rising Curve: Long Term Gains in IQ and Related Matters. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Summarises and extends the thesis that improvements in nutrition have been the principal factor responsible for the increase in measured intelligence during the last half century or so.

(With Harland, E.P.) A positive effect of iron supplementation on the IQs of iron deficient children.
Personality and Individual Differences, 1998, 24, 883-887

Reports a study in which daily iron supplements were given to 208 adolescents compared with placebo tablets given to 205 controls.
Those given iron supplements who were deficient in iron stores showed an IQ gain of 5.8 IQ points. 17% of the sample were found to be iron deficient. This study confirms the theory that the quality of nutrition has an effect on IQ.


New data on black infant precocity.
Personality and Individual Differences 1998, 25, 24, 883-887

Presents new data from South Africa showing that black infants are advanced compared with white in their mental and physical development in the first 18 months of life.

Dysgenics. American Psychologist,1998,52,1431.
Presents new evidence for the presence of dysgenic fertility in the United States.


The attack on the Bell Curve.
Personality and Individual Differences,1999,26,761-765.
A critical review and refutation of two books attacking The Bell Curve.
(With Allik, J. & Must, O). Sex differences in general intelligence among high school graduates: some results from Estonia. Personality and Individual Differences, 1999, 26,1137-1141.
Presents evidence for a sample of students in Estonia that males have higher IQs than females for reasoning, verbal and spatial ability and for general knowledge.

(With W.C.Mau) Racial and ethnic differences in motivation for educational achievement in the United States.
Personality and Individual Differences,1999,27,1091-1097.
Presents new evidence on race differences among 16 & 18 years olds in the USA on math, reading and science showing that highest scores are obtained by whites and Asians, followed by Hispanics, and lowest scores are obtained by blacks.

(With Wilberg, S.) Sex differences in historical knowledge and school grades: a 26 nation study.
Personality and Individual Differences, 1999, 27,1221-1230.
Presents data for 26 nations showing that in all countries 15 year old boys have more general historical knowledge than girls.

Sex differences in intelligence and brain size: a developmental theory. Intelligence,1999, 27,1-12.
Presents new evidence and arguments that men have higher average IQs than women, consistent with their greater brain size. And argues that this difference is masked in childhood and adolescence by the faster maturation of girls.

New evidence for dysgenic fertility for intelligence in the United States.
Social Biology,1999,46,146-153.
Presents new evidence that intelligent women in the United States have been having fewer children than less intelligent women, and therefore that the intelligence level of the population is deteriorating.

(With J.Allik & O.Must) Sex differences in brain size, stature and intelligence in children and adolescents: some evidence from Estonia. Personality and Individual Differences, 2000,29,555-560.
Shows that brain size is associated with intelligence among boys and girls in Estonia.

Race differences in sexual behavior and their demographic implications.
Population and Environment, 2000,22,73-81.
Presents data showing that blacks have more sexual partners than whites.
(With W.C.Mau) Gender differences in homework and test scores in mathematics, reading and science at tenth and twelfth grade.

Psychology, Evolution and Gender,2000,2,119-125.
Shows that boys obtain higher scores on tests but girls do more homework.

(With P.Irwing & T.Cammock) Some evidence for the existence of a general factor of semantic memory and its components. Personality and Individual Differences, 2001,30,857-871.
Shows that there is a general factor of long term memory or general information and knowledge, divisible into 18 components consisting of general knowledge of current affairs, history, science, etc. This work is preparatory to a study of sex differences in general knowledge.

(With Mau, W-C.) Gender differences on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, the American College Test and college grades.
Educational Psychology, 2001, 21,133-136.
Shows that men get higher scores on the verbal and math tests in the SAT and ACT, but women get higher grades during college.

(With Mau, Wei-Cheng) Ethnic and sex differences in the predictive validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test for college grades.
Psychological Reports, 2001, 88, 1099-1104.
Shows that Asians and whites do best in the Scholastic Achievement Test, followed by Hispanics, while blacks do worst, and that blacks do worse in college grades than would be predicted from their SAT scores.

Intelligence in Russia. Mankind Quarterly, 2001 42, 151-154.
Shows that the IQ in Russia is approximately 97.

Racial and ethnic differences in psychopathic personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 2002, 32, 273-316.
Proposes the theory that psychopathic personality is highest among blacks and Native Americans, next highest in Hispanics, lower in whites and lowest in Orientals.

(With Irwing, P. & Cammock, T.) Sex differences in general knowledge. Intelligence, 2002,30, 27-40.
Examines sex differences in 19 areas of general knowledge and finds women have more knowledge than men of medicine and cookery, while men have more knowledge than women of politics, history, geography, sport, finance, and science. Men have more general knowledge than women.

Skin color and intelligence in African Americans. Population and Environment, 2002, 23, 365-375.
Presents new evidence showing that lighter skinned blacks have higher IQs than darker skinned blacks, supporting the theory that the proportion of white ancestry is a determinant of IQ among blacks.

Race differences in sexual behavior: a test of some predictions from Rushtons r-K theory. Population and Environment, 2002, 22, 73-81.
Presents new data showing that blacks have more sexual partners than whites

Sex differences on the Progressive Matrices among 15-16 year olds: some data from South Africa.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2002, 33, 669-677.

Boys have a higher IQ than girls by 2.3 IQ points in 15 year olds and 4.65 IQ points in 16 year olds

(With Mau, W-C.) Why do black American males earn less than black American women? An examination of four hypotheses.
Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 2002, 27, 307-314.

(With Allik, J., Pullman, H. & Laidra, K.) Sex differences on the Progressive Matrices among adolescents: some data from Estonia.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, 36, 1249-1257.
Among 12-15 year olds girls have a higher IQ by 3.8 points; among 16-18 year olds boys have a higher IQ by 1.4 points.

(With Irwing, P.) Sex differences in general knowledge, semantic memory and reasoning ability.
British Journal of Psychology, 2002 , 93, 545-556.
More evidence that males have more general knowledge than females.

(With Chan, P.W.) Sex differences on the progressive matrices: some data
from Hong Kong.
Journal of Biosocial Science, 2003, 35, 145-154.
Reports that among 15-18 year olds boys obtain higher IQs than girls by 3.2 IQ points and provides further confirmation for the theory than from the age of 15 onwards males have higher reasoning ability than females.

The intelligence of American Jews.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, 36, 201-207.

The verbal IQ of American Jews is 107.5

(With Colom, R.) Testing the developmental theory of sex differences in intelligence on 12-18 year olds.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, 36, 75-82.
Shows girls have higher IQ at ages 12 & 13, boys higher at ages 16,17 & 18.

Sex differences in intelligence. In R.Gregory (Ed)
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Review of sex differences in intelligence and refutes Andersons assertion that there is no sex differences in intelligence

(With Backhoff, E. &.Contreras, L. ) Sex differences on the Progressive Matrices among 7 to 10 year olds: some normative data for Mexico.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, 36, 779-789.

Shows boys are better at visualization but there is no sex difference on reasoning.

(With Irwing, P.) Sex differences on the Advanced Progressive Matrices in college students.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, 37, 219-223.
Shows that in college students men have higher IQs than women

(With Van Court, M.) New evidence of dysgenic fertility for intelligence in the United States.
Intelligence, 2004, 32, 193-2002.
New updated evidence that fertility is still dysgenic

(With Wilberg, S. & Margraf-Stiksrud, J.) Sex differences in general knowledge in German high school students.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2004,37, 1643-1650.


(With Pullmann, H. & Allik, J. The growth of IQ among Estonian schoolchildren from 7 to 19.
Journal of Biosocial Science, 2004, 36, 735-740.
Shows that there is no sex difference on the Progressive Matrices up to the age of 15 but that men score higher than women from the age of 16

(With Allik, J. & Irwing, P. ) Sex differences on three factors identified in Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices.
Intelligence, 2004, 32, 411-424.

(With Irwing, P.). Sex differences on the Progressive Matrices: a meta-analysis.
Intelligence, 2004, 32, 481-498.
A meta-analysis of sex differences in intelligence measured by the Progressive Matrices showing that among adults males have higher IQs than females by about 5 IQ points. Refutes Mackintoshs claim that there is no sex difference on the Progressive Matrices.

(With Backhoff, E. & Contreras, L. ) Ethnic and racial differences in intelligence in Mexico.
Journal of Biosocial Science, 2005, 37, 107-113.
A study showing that in Mexico whites have an IQ of 98, Mestizos of 94 and Native American Indians of 83, and that the IQ in Mexico is 88.

(With Fergusson, D.M. & Horwood, L.J.) Sex differences on the WISC-R in New Zealand.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2005, 103-114.

(With Raine, A.,Venables, P. H. & Mednick, S. A. ) Sex differences in 3 Year Olds on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Some data from Mauritius.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2005, 39, 683-688.
Shows that among 3 year olds girls have a higher IQ than boys.

(With Raine, A.,Venables, P. H., Mednick, S. A. & Irwing, P. ) Sex differences on the WISC-R in Mauritius.
Intelligence, 2005, 33, 527-534.

(With Irwing, P.). Sex differences in means and variability on the
Progressive Matrices in university students: A meta-analysis.
British Journal of Psychology, 2005, 96, 505524.

A meta-analysis of 22 studies of sex differences in university students on the Progressive Matrices.
The results showed that males obtained a higher mean than
females by 4.6 IQ points.

(With Vanhanen, T.) The Role of Human Capital and Intelligence in the Economic Development of the Asian Economies.
In J.B.Kidd and F-J. Richter (Eds)

Infrastructure and Productivity in Asia (2005).

An application of the IQ theory of economic development to Asia

(With Martinelli,V) Sex differences on verbal and non-verbal abilities among primary school children in Malta.
Journal of Maltese Educational Research, 2005, 3, 1-7.

(With Wilberg, S. & Margraf-Stiksrud, J.). Sex differences in general knowledge in German and Northern Irish University students.
Sexualities, Evolution and Gender
, 2005, 7, 277-285
(With Irwing, P.) Is there a sex difference in IQ scores? Nature, 2006, 442, doi:10.1038/nature04966.

(WithIrwing, P.).The relation between childhood IQ and income in middle age.
Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 2006, 31, 191-196.

The intelligence of East Asians: a 30 year controversy and its resolution.
Mankind Quarterly, 2006, 46, 435-442.
(With Longley, D.). On the high intelligence and cognitive achievements of Jews in Britain. Intelligence, 2006, 34, 541-548.
Shows that Jews in Britain have an IQ of approximately 110.


(With David, H.). Intelligence differences between European and Oriental Jews in Israel.
Journal of Biosocial Science, 2007, 39, 465-473.

Shows that in Israel Ashkenazi Jews have an IQ of approximately 14 points higher than Oriental Jews.

(With Higgins, L.) The IQ of Mongolians. Mankind Quarterly, 2007, 48, 91-97.

Review of J. Flynns What is Intelligence?
Beyond the Flynn Effect. Intelligence
, 2007, 35, 515-516.

A study of the IQ in Bangladesh.
Mankind Quarterly, 2007, 48, 117-122.

Nutrition and IQ.
The Psychologist, 2007, 20, 471-2.

The IQ rise.
The Psychologist, 2007, 20, 663.

(With Mikk, J.). National differences in intelligence and educational attainment.
Intelligence, 2007, 35, 115-121.

(With Meisenberg, G., Mikk, J. & Williams, A. (2007). National differences in intelligence and educational attainment.
Journal of Biosocial Science, 39, 861-874.
Shows a high correlation between national IQs and educational attainment in math and science.

Race differences in intelligence, creativity and creative achievement.
Mankind Quarterly, 2007, 48, 157-168.
Argues that the East Asians are less creative than Europeans

(With Zarevski, P., Ivanec, D. & Zarevski, Z.).
Sex differences in general knowledge: four Croatian studies. Suvremena Psihologia, 2007, 10, 213-222.
Men have more general knowledge than women in Croatia
(With Harvey, J.)
The decline of the world's IQ. Intelligence, 2008, 36, 112-120.
Shows that the genotypic IQ of the world is declining.

(With Mikk, J.).
Science: sex differences in attainment.
Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 2008, 33,101-124.
Reviews studies showing that men are better at science than women

(With Abdel-Khalek, A. ).
Intelligence, family size and birth-order: some data from Kuwait.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2008, 44, 1032-1038.
No relationship between intelligence, family size and birth-order in Kuwait

(With Kanazawa, S.).
How to explain high Jewish achievement: the role of intelligence and values.
Personality and Individual Differences, 2008, 44, 801-808.
Jews have high IQs but no evidence that they have different values than gentiles

(With Harvey, J. & Nyborg, H. ). Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations.
Intelligence, 2008 (to appear).
Shows that national populations with high IQ tend not to believe in god.

(With Khaleefa, O.). Sex Differences on the Progressive Matrices: some data from Syria.
Mankind Quarterly, 2008, 48, 345-352.

The IQ in Syria is approximately 84

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